<big id="zht3z"></big>

      <dl id="zht3z"><progress id="zht3z"><form id="zht3z"></form></progress></dl>
            <b id="zht3z"></b>

            <ruby id="zht3z"><var id="zht3z"></var></ruby>

              <progress id="zht3z"></progress>
              Welcome to visit the website of Baoji Ruitong Energy technology Co.,Ltd.

              China's economic structure is constantly upgrading, and development coordination is significantly enhanced.

              [ Information dissemination:This station | Release Time:2019-07-10 | Browse:1120 ]

              Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, especially since the reform and opening up, China's economy has continued to grow rapidly and has become the world's second largest economy. At the same time, the economic structure has undergone profound changes, from the backward agricultural country to the world's largest manufacturing country, from insufficient food and clothing. The construction of poor countries has become a well-off society in an all-round way. Urbanization has been steadily advanced. The development of East, Central and West has been coordinated. The public-owned economy and the private economy have been symbiotically co-prosperous, and economic and social development has rapidly moved toward a high-quality development stage.

              First, the industrial structure continued to be optimized, realizing the transformation from agriculture to the coordinated development of the three industries.

              At the beginning of the founding of New China, China's industrial base was very weak. In 1952, agricultural added value accounted for 50.5% of GDP, and agriculture absorbed 83.5% of the employed population. After that, according to the environmental and practical needs at that time, China mainly implemented the policy of “focusing on the development of heavy industry”, and at the same time, it was accompanied by the policy of unified purchase and marketing of agricultural products, which promoted industrial accumulation. In 1978, the proportion of agricultural value added fell to 27.7%, and the proportion of employment fell to 70.5%. After the reform and opening up, the people's production enthusiasm was brought into play, the socialist market economic system was gradually established, the productive forces were quickly liberated and developed, and the industrial structure was profoundly adjusted. In 2011, the proportion of employment in the tertiary industry increased to 35.7%, surpassing the primary industry for the first time and becoming the industry with the most employment. In 2012, the proportion of the added value of the tertiary industry increased to 45.5%, surpassing the secondary industry for the first time and becoming the largest added value. industry. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China's economic development has entered a new stage. The strategic adjustment of the economic structure and the transformation and upgrading have accelerated, and the coordination of the three industrial developments has been significantly enhanced. In 2018, the proportions of the added value of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries were 7.2%, 40.7% and 52.2% respectively; the proportion of employment was 26.1%, 27.6% and 46.3% respectively, of which the proportion of the added value of the tertiary industry and the proportion of employment were 1952 respectively. The year increased by 23.5 and 37.2 percentage points.

              The basic position of agriculture has been further consolidated, and the traditional agriculture with grain as the key link has been transformed into the comprehensive development of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery. Before the reform and opening up, China's agricultural production structure was relatively simple, and the planting industry occupied an absolute dominant position. In 1952-year, the proportion of agriculture in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery reached 85.9%, and the proportion of forestry, animal husbandry and fishery was only 1.6%, 11.2% and 1.3% respectively. After the reform and opening up, the reform of the contracted responsibility system for agricultural products and the circulation system for agricultural products was gradually implemented. Policies and measures to encourage the development of diversified operations and promote agricultural industrialization were successively introduced, and agricultural production was gradually diversified. In 1990, the proportion of agriculture in the total output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery fell to 64.7%, and the proportion of forestry, animal husbandry and fishery increased to 4.3%, 25.7% and 5.4% respectively. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the policy system for strengthening agriculture, benefiting farmers and enriching farmers has continued to improve, the structural reform of the agricultural supply side has continued to deepen, the agricultural foundation has been consolidated, the level of agricultural modernization has gradually improved, and the agricultural structure has been adjusted and optimized. In 2018, the proportion of agriculture in the total output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery fell to 54.1%, and the proportion of forestry, animal husbandry and fishery increased to 4.8%, 25.3% and 10.7% respectively.

              The industrial system is more complete, and industrial production moves from the low end to the middle and high end. At the beginning of the founding of New China, China's industrial base was very weak, and its technical level was backward. It can only manufacture daily necessities such as food, clothing, and wear. It is basically in the state of manual work and simple manufacturing. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China 70 years ago, especially since the reform and opening up, China has turned from an agricultural country to an industrial country, and formulated and implemented a series of major policies and special plans to promote industrial development. The scale of the industry has grown from small to large, and the level of technology has changed from low to high. The product has a complete range of changes to the category, and the international competitiveness and influence of “Made in China” has gradually increased. At present, China is the only country in the world that has all the industrial categories in the UN industry catalogue. The whole industry support has laid a solid foundation for industrial upgrading, high-tech industries such as aerospace, electronic communications, medical equipment, new energy and new materials. It is booming, and the competitiveness of major equipment such as high-speed rail and nuclear power ranks among the top in the world. In 2018, the added value of high-tech manufacturing industry accounted for 13.9% of the added value of industrial enterprises above designated size, an increase of 6.9 percentage points over 1995.

              The service industry is booming and the new business model is on the rise. Before the reform and opening up, the service industry was mainly the general life service industry, with a high proportion of wholesale, retail and transportation. In 1952, the added value of wholesale and retail, transportation, warehousing and postal services accounted for 35.9% and 14.9% of the added value of the tertiary industry, respectively. Since the reform and opening up, the reform of the economic system has been carried out in an orderly manner, and a large number of service functions have been separated from the public sector. At the same time, the level of consumption of residents has been continuously improved, which has led to the diversified development of the service industry. In 2010, the added value of wholesale and retail, transportation, warehousing and postal services accounted for 19.7% and 10.3% of the added value of the tertiary industry, respectively, and the value-added of the financial and real estate industries rose to 14.1% and 12.9% respectively. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, new technologies and new models such as e-commerce, data consumption, modern supply chain and internet finance have been changing with each passing day, and the service industry has become a hot spot for innovation and entrepreneurship. In 2018, the added value of the leasing and business services, information transmission software and information technology services accounted for 5.2% and 6.9% of the added value of the tertiary industry respectively; the online retail sales of physical goods reached 701.9 billion yuan, an increase over the previous year. 25.4%, accounting for 18.4% of the total retail sales of consumer goods; the change in sales methods led to the rapid development of express delivery business, completed 50.1 billion express delivery business in 2018, an increase of 26.6% over the previous year.

              Second, the demand structure continued to improve, realizing the transformation from weak demand to troika synergy

              In the early days of the founding of the People's Republic of China, residents' consumption was limited and investment funds were scarce. Economic growth was mainly driven by general consumption. In 1952, the final consumption rate was as high as 78.9%, the capital formation rate was 22.2%, and the net export of goods and services was negative. After that, “first cure the slope, after the treatment of the nest”, the investment has obviously accelerated, and consumption has lagged behind. Since the reform and opening up, with the development of productivity and the improvement of residents' living standards, China's investment, consumption and export demand have grown rapidly. Especially since joining the World Trade Organization, the role of investment and export has been significantly enhanced. In 2007, goods and services. The proportion of net exports to GDP reached a peak of 8.6%; in 2011, the capital formation rate reached a peak of 48.0%. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China has actively built a long-term mechanism to expand domestic demand, focusing on the basic role of consumption and the key role of investment. The contribution rate of domestic demand to economic growth has been continuously improved, and the demand structure has been gradually rationalized. In 2018, China's final consumption rate was 54.3%, contributing 76.2% to economic growth; capital formation rate was 44.9%, contributing to economic growth rate of 32.4%; and net contribution of goods and services was -8.6%.

              The consumption upgrade situation is obvious. Before the reform and opening up, the consumption expenditure of urban and rural residents was mainly used to solve the problem of food and clothing. In 1978, the Engel coefficient of urban and rural residents was as high as 57.5% and 67.7% respectively. Since the reform and opening up, China's consumption level has increased substantially, and residents' spiritual and cultural life has become more abundant. In 2010, the Engel coefficient of urban and rural residents dropped to 35.7% and 41.1% respectively. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the residents’ lives have further improved and they have made great strides toward a comprehensive well-off society. In 2018, the Engel coefficient of urban and rural residents dropped to 27.7% and 30.1% respectively; the number of household cars per 100 households nationwide was 33.0, an increase of 95.3% over 2013; the number of bicycles per 100 households was 59.2, an increase of 49.9%; The number of mobile phones per 100 households was 249.1, an increase of 22.6%; the number of air conditioners per 100 households was 109.3 units, an increase of 55.3%; the number of hoods per 100 households was 56.4 units, an increase of 32.7%; The volume was 85.0 units, an increase of 32.4%.

              The investment structure continues to improve. Before the reform and opening up, due to lack of funds and materials, limited investment was mainly used for key construction projects and heavy industry development. Since the reform and opening up, the key role of investment has continued to appear, which has a positive impact on the optimization and adjustment of industrial structure. In 2010, tertiary industry investment accounted for 56.5% of fixed assets investment (excluding farmers). Since the 18th National Party Congress, investment in the short-board sector has grown rapidly, and investment continues to play an important role in optimizing supply structure and improving supply quality. In 2018, tertiary industry investment accounted for 59.0% of fixed assets investment (excluding farmers); high-tech manufacturing investment accounted for 17.5% of total manufacturing investment, up 6.9 percentage points over 2014; private investment accounted for fixed assets investment 62.0% (excluding farmers), an increase of 0.6 percentage points over 2012.

              The trade structure continues to be optimized. At the beginning of the founding of New China, China’s total exports accounted for more than 80% of its total exports. The imported goods were mainly production materials such as machinery and equipment. In 1978, primary products accounted for 53.5% of total exports. Since the reform and opening up, China's productivity has increased substantially, and the trade structure has undergone a fundamental transformation. In 2018, the proportion of primary products in total exports fell to 5.4%, and the proportion of industrial manufactured goods rose to 94.6%. The trade pattern has experienced a shift from general trade to processing trade and then to general trade. The proportion of processing trade increased from 6% in 1981 to 53.4% in 1998 and fell to 27.4% in 2018. The proportion of general trade fell from 93.5% in 1981 to 53.8% in 2014 and rose to 57.8% in 2018. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, high-level opening to the outside world has continued to achieve positive results. The construction of the free trade zone has grown from scratch, and trade with the world, especially emerging market countries, is closer. In 2018, China's free trade pilot zone reached 12, and its trading partners reached more than 200. The import and export of goods to ASEAN countries accounted for 12.7% of the total import and export of all goods, an increase of 2.4 percentage points over 2012.

              Third, the regional structure is more coordinated, and the new growth and growth belt is constantly forming.

              Before the beginning of the founding of New China and before the reform and opening up, in order to change the situation of industrial concentration on the coast, China's regional policy emphasizes balanced development and focuses on solving the imbalance between the coastal and the mainland. During the “First Five-Year Plan” period, the guidelines for the planned and balanced distribution of industries were established, and it was proposed that “the industrial productivity should be appropriately distributed in all regions of the country, so that the industry is close to raw materials, fuel producing areas and consumption areas, and is suitable for consolidating national defense. Conditions, to gradually change this irrationality, improve the economic level of the backward areas." During the "three-line" construction period, the principle of industrialization of "reliance, dispersion and concealment" was adopted, laying a foundation for the industrialization of the interior and the narrowing of the regional gap. After the reform and opening up, the implementation of a part of the region, some people get rich first, and gradually achieve the principle of common prosperity, the regional policy emphasizes efficiency priority, and the coastal areas represented by the SAR are developing rapidly. Since 1999, regional policies have once again emphasized balanced development, the development of the western region, the revitalization of the Northeast, the rise of the central region, and the overall strategy for regional development in the east, especially since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and Guangdong. A series of major regional strategies, such as the Hong Kong-Macau Dawan District and the Yangtze River Delta regional integration, have been steadily advanced, and a new pattern of east-west, north-south, and horizontal linkage development is taking shape.

              The regional development gap has tended to shrink. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China 70 years ago, China's regional development gap has presented different characteristics at different stages. In general, the current regional development gap is significantly smaller than the initial period of the founding of New China, and it is also significantly smaller than the turn of the century. In 2018, among the provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), the ratio of the highest per capita GDP to the lowest region was 4.5, compared with 8.1 in 1952 and 10.8 in 2000. In 2018, the per capita regions of the provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) The coefficient of variation for total production is 0.439, compared with 0.581 in 1952 and 0.686 in 2000. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the economic growth in the central and western regions has been significantly faster than that in the eastern region, and regional development has become more coordinated. From 2012 to 2018, the per capita GDP of the central and western regions increased by 8.2% and 8.5% respectively, and the eastern and northeast regions increased by 7.2% and 6.1% respectively.

              The industrial layout is more balanced. With the advancement of industrialization, various industries in China have formed their own characteristics and advantages, and the industrial layout has been gradually optimized. In 1952, China's industry was mainly concentrated in the east and northeast. The industrial added value of the two sectors accounted for 73.8% of the national total, and the central and western proportions were only 12.6% and 13.6% respectively. The industrial added value of the largest industrial and industrial areas in Shanghai and Liaoning accounted for the whole country. 30.4%. In 2018, the industrial added value of the central and western regions increased to 22.5% and 17.8% respectively; the two largest industrial regions became Guangdong and Jiangsu, and the industrial added value of the two provinces accounted for 23.4% of the national total, significantly less than 1952. In the year of the largest two regions, the concentration of industrial areas has dropped significantly.

              Fourth, urban and rural planning and orderly advancement, new urbanization development presents a new pattern

              Before the reform and opening up, China's urban-rural gap was large, urbanization was slow, and urban and rural areas were in a state of division. After the reform and opening up, the hukou restrictions on household registration gradually loosened, urbanization began to accelerate, and the market boundaries of labor, land, capital and other factors between urban and rural areas were broken, driving the gap between urban and rural areas to be greatly reduced. Some areas took the lead in realizing urban-rural integration. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the new urbanization of people-oriented has been steadily advanced, the quality of urbanization has been significantly improved, and the urban-rural structure has been further optimized.

              The gap between urban and rural development has gradually narrowed. The free flow of elements between urban and rural areas not only promotes the development of urban economy, but also effectively expands the income sources of rural residents and reduces the population pressure in rural areas and agriculture. At the same time, with the strengthening of China's overall economic strength, the investment in “agriculture, rural areas and farmers” has gradually increased, and the mechanism of promoting agriculture through industry and taking the town with township has gradually formed. At the end of 2018, the length of rural roads reached 4.04 million kilometers, 6.9 times that of 1978, and the proportion of broadband in the national administrative villages reached 98%. Since 2008, the income ratio of urban and rural residents has continued to shrink, reaching 2.69 in 2018, down 0.46 from 2007.

              The level of urbanization has increased significantly. Before the reform and opening up, most of China's population lived in rural areas, and the process of urbanization was slow. In 1949, China's urban population was only 5.765 million, the urbanization rate was 10.64%, and it was only 17.92% in 1978. It only increased by 7.28 percentage points in the past 30 years. Since the reform and opening up, China's urbanization process has obviously accelerated. From 1978 to 2018, the number of permanent residents in urban areas increased from 170 million to 830 million. The urbanization rate increased from 17.92% to 59.58%, an increase of 41.66 percentage points; the number of cities increased from 193 to 672, and the number of established towns was 2176. Increased to 21,297. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the reform of the household registration system has been fully implemented, and the population of the agricultural transfer population has accelerated. From 2012 to 2018, the urbanization rate of the registered population increased from 35.33% to 43.37%, and the gap with the urbanization rate of the resident population narrowed from 17.24 percentage points to 16.21 percentage points, which was 1.03 percentage points lower.

              The urban development pattern with the urban agglomeration as the main body has taken shape. With the rapid advancement of urbanization, China's urban layout structure has been continuously optimized, and the agglomeration effect has been significantly enhanced. It has formed urban clusters such as the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Chengyu, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, the Central Plains, Ha Chang, and the Beibu Gulf. An important engine for economic development, some urban agglomerations already have strong international economic influence. Large cities within the urban agglomeration have gradually enhanced the role of radiation in small and medium-sized cities and small towns, and accelerated the integration of inter-city infrastructure networks.

              精品亚洲AV无码一区二区夜夜_国产精品爱啪在线播放_人妻免费刚交视频_国产费视频在线观看视频